Tag Archives: Pearl Harbor

Franklin Roosevelt, the Bomb Plot, and the Winds Code Messages – Unheeded Stark Warnings Of War

A veritable library exists about the December 7, 1941, attack by air and naval forces of Imperial Japan on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.    But I am not aware of any book which  focuses on the congressional report released on July 20, 1946 on the attack.  Buried in this report are factual recounts of intercepted Japanese messages that, if considered carefully, would have foretold the Pearl Harbor attack.  It is an  open  question as to why the Roosevelt Administration, in possession of these intercepts, failed to then act to prepare for the forthcoming attack.  This was a monumental failure of leadership that led the US directly into World War II.  The intercepts are all explained in the report.

Following a far-reaching 1945 investigation extending over several months, the 1o-member Joint Congressional Committee which conducted the investigation issued its report. The Joint Committee was comprised  of five Senators and five Representatives, but six Democrats and four Republicans.  Therein lay the problem.  The final vote of the Joint Committee on the report was 8-2.  The majority exonerated President Roosevelt and other high Washington officials of responsibility for the U.S. unpreparedness  for the attack.  This result was strongly challenged by two Senators, both Republicans.  Their well- documented views are the basis for my recently released book, “The Congressional Pearl Harbor Cover-Up – A True Account of How A Partisan Congress Misled the American People on the Pearl Harbor Attack, December 7, 1941.  Featuring Historic Lessons on the Failure of Leadership to Foresee the Attack and to Avert War With Japan.”

There were  several areas of focus by the two dissenters, none  more important than the so-called “bomb plot” message and related messages that they believed heralded an attack on Pearl Harbor.  Beginning on September 24, 1941, several intercepted and decoded Japanese messages indicated that ships in Pearl Harbor were marked for attack.  The September 24 1941 “bomb plot message” and other messages which followed it revealed detailed information about Japan’s strategic interest in Pearl Harbor  The message was delivered to President Roosevelt and other high ranking Washington officials on October 9,1941.  These messages were of singular importance in revealing Japan’s intentions in targeting Pearl Harbor for an attack.  Although the majority of the Joint Committee would not agree that the messages indicated a planned attack on Pearl Harbor, nevertheless they conceded that the messages should have received special attention.  They also reached the remarkable conclusion that  “Had greater imagination and a keener awareness of the significance of intelligence existed…it is proper to suggest that someone should have concluded that Pearl Harbor was a likely point of Japanese attack.”  The two dissenting Republican Senators put it quite succinctly:  “The probability that the Pacific Fleet would be attacked at Pearl Harbor was clear from the “bomb plot” available in Washington as early as October 9, 1941…”

However, the intercepted Japanese messages did not indicate WHEN the attack would occur.  This missing element was arguably supplied by the “Winds Code” messages.   On November 19, 1941, the Japanese set up an innovative code to warn their diplomatic outposts when a break in relations with the United States, Great Britain, or Russia was imminent.  The code incorporated weather elements as the heart of the warning.  Despite conflicting evidence the Committee majority concluded that no genuine winds message in activation of the code applying to the United States, “East Wind, Rain,” meaning war with the United States, was received by U.S. intelligence prior to December 7, 1941.  The two dissenters noted that evidence before the Army Pearl Harbor Board and the Hart Inquiry, each concluding in 1944, was that such a message had been received.  Moreover, the State Department and ostensibly the White House received a winds alert message on December 4, 1941.  Although it was not a winds activation message, it can be argued that taking all the information together, the White House and other high ranking Washington officials should have been on the alert that an attack against Pearl Harbor was imminent.

 

 

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The “Bomb Plot” Messages Failed To Alert Washington That Pearl Harbor Would Be Attacked

This installment, once more, provides excerpts from my new book, “The Pearl Harbor Congressional Cover-Up” as part of the series on leadership and success.  It deals with a 1945 congressional investigation into the attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941.  A 10-member joint congressional committee conducted the investigation over several arduous months.  Its report, reached by an 8-2 vote, was released to the public on July 20, 1946.  Part of the report concerns the intercepted Japanese “bomb plot” message and related messages, which are reviewed in this installment.  The messages themselves, which are too lengthy to be included here, are repeated verbatim in the book.

Beginning September 24, 1941, several intercepted and decoded secret Japanese war plans messages indicated ships in Pearl Harbor were marked for attack; little information was passed on to Hawaiian commanders.  The September 24, 1941 “Bomb Plot Message” and other related messages which followed it, revealed detailed information about Japanese interest in Pearl Harbor.  The message was delivered to President Roosevelt and other high Washington officials on October 9, 1941.  These intercepted September and November, 1941 messages were of singular importance in revealing Japanese intentions to target Pearl Harbor for an attack.  They were however never transmitted to Hawaii by Washington.  Neither Admiral Husband Kimmel, in charge of the Pacific Fleet, nor General Walter Short who headed the Army command there, saw them before the attack.

Representative Frank Keefe (R-WI), a member of the investigating committee, described the relevance of the messages clearly and precisely.  He wrote that “the ‘bomb plot’ message and those messages relating to Pearl Harbor which followed it meant that ships of the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor were marked for a Japanese attack…These reports which Japan thus sought and received had a useful purpose only in planning and executing an attack upon the ships in port…They were the product of instructions emanating from the government of Japan in Tokyo.  Officers of the high command in Washington  have admitted before us that this message, if correctly evaluated, meant an attack on ships of the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor.”

The two committee members who dissented to the report put it quite succinctly:  “The probability that the Pacific Fleet would be attacked at Pearl Harbor was clear from the “bomb plot” available in Washington as early as October 9, 1941…[These] messages meant that ships of the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor were marked for a Japanese attack.  No other American harbor was divided into subareas by Japan.  And no other American harbor had such a large share of the Fleet to protect.”

Although the eight  Joint Committee members who signed the report were unable to conclude that the intercepted messages pointed directly to an attack on Pearl Harbor nor could they conclude that the intercepted plan was a bomb plot, nevertheless they opined that the messages should have received careful consideration and created a serious question as to their significance.  The intelligence should have been appreciated and supplied to the commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet and the commanding general of the Army’s Hawaiian Department.

Despite the foregoing, the 8-member majority made the remarkable finding that “Washington and Hawaii possessed unusually significant and vital intelligence.  Had greater imagination and a keener awareness of the significance of intelligence existed,  concentrating and applying it to particular situations, it is proper to suggest that someone should have concluded that Pearl Harbor was a likely point of attack.”

This latter admission by the majority was as close as they came to admitting that the Pearl Harbor attack was foreseeable, as the 2-member minority claimed.  It should be noted that the majority failed to specify exactly what information was in the hands of the Hawaiian commanders because the record before the Committee showed that Hawaii had no such information.  That leaves unspecified personnel in Washington as being responsible  for the lack of imagination and awareness.

Arnold G. Regardie

 

 

 

 

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“Prelude to Infamy” – Now on Amazon’s Kindle

“The Japanese Navy is itching for a fight with the American Navy.”  News item, ascribed to a Japanese Navy official, on or about October 24, 1941.”

To commemorate the  forthcoming 74th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, I have posted a new ebook on Amazon’s Kindle.  It describes the diplomatic exchanges between the United States and Japan in the months leading up to the attack. Here’s the complete title:  “Prelude to Infamy: How Imperial Japan’s Diplomatic Treachery Led To America’s Greatest Military Disaster – Pearl Harbor.”

This book is a true account of Japanese diplomatic deception which led to the surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Naval Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in the early morning hours of Sunday, December 7, 1941.  It provides an inside look at the virtual day to day diplomatic negotiations, including reports, conversations, communiques, and telegrams, from August to December, 1941, between officials of the U.S. Department of State and diplomats of the Japanese Empire as dark clouds of war continued to loom in the background.  Essentially based on the report of a Congressional investigation into the attack, released in July, 1946, it effectively puts the reader in  position of becoming an eyewitness to history being made as the process of searching for peace is continued.

The book  reveals in depth how the U.S. continued to negotiate for peace but at the same time sought to build up its military and naval forces to counter Japanese aggression in the Far East.  Militaristic Japan,  bent  on expanding its sphere of influence by force and violence to assure, it asserted,  its survival as an empire, had been reaching out to acquire the raw materials and other natural resources needed for its survival.  It  had invaded and subjugated large parts of China in 1937,  occupied  French Indochina in 1940, and was threatening the Dutch East Indies and other countries and areas in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Region.  Peace negotiations faltered as it continued to resist U.S. efforts to pull back its forces.

In February, 1941, unknown to the U.S. and apparently to its own diplomatic corps, the Japanese military began planning an attack on the United States.  In October, 1941, Hideki Tojo, a General in the Japanese Imperial Army and Minister of War under former Prime Minister Prince Konoye, who resigned on October 16, 1941, was appointed Prime Minister by Emperor Hirohito.  Chances for peace dimmed when Tojo, a hard liner, resisted U.S. efforts to have Japan pull its troops out of China, a key point in U.S endeavors, and took a tough stand against continued peace negotiations with the U.S.

On December 6, 1941, Japan began delivery of a 14 point reply to the latest U.S. peace proposal of November 26, 1941.  Due to its own bungling, the 14th point, breaking off talks with the U.S. was not delivered until well after the attack on Pearl Harbor had begun on December 7.  No formal declaration of war by Japan against the United States was received in Washington until 4 p.m. (EST), long after the attack had ended.

The book concludes with  two noteworthy quotes.  One is from the lyric of an old Glenn Miller tune, “You must be vigilant, you must be vigilant, American Patrol…”, and the other is  from a 1790 speech by John Philpot Curran  in Dublin, Ireland, that  “Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.”  These timeless words still ring true today.

For those readers who may not be aware of the diplomatic background behind the attack, this ebook should prove to be very enlightening.

Arnold G. Regardie

 

 

 

 

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